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In broad terms a lord was a noble who held land, a vassal was a person who was granted possession of the land by the lord, and the land was known as a fief.
In exchange for the use of the fief and protection by the lord, the vassal would provide some sort of service to the lord.
There were many varieties of feudal land tenure , consisting of military and non-military service. The obligations and corresponding rights between lord and vassal concerning the fief form the basis of the feudal relationship.
Before a lord could grant land a fief to someone, he had to make that person a vassal. This was done at a formal and symbolic ceremony called a commendation ceremony , which was composed of the two-part act of homage and oath of fealty.
During homage, the lord and vassal entered into a contract in which the vassal promised to fight for the lord at his command, whilst the lord agreed to protect the vassal from external forces.
Fealty comes from the Latin fidelitas and denotes the fidelity owed by a vassal to his feudal lord. Such an oath follows homage. Once the commendation ceremony was complete, the lord and vassal were in a feudal relationship with agreed obligations to one another.
The vassal's principal obligation to the lord was to "aid", or military service. Using whatever equipment the vassal could obtain by virtue of the revenues from the fief, the vassal was responsible to answer calls to military service on behalf of the lord.
This security of military help was the primary reason the lord entered into the feudal relationship. In addition, the vassal could have other obligations to his lord, such as attendance at his court, whether manorial, baronial, both termed court baron , or at the king's court.
It could also involve the vassal providing "counsel", so that if the lord faced a major decision he would summon all his vassals and hold a council.
At the level of the manor this might be a fairly mundane matter of agricultural policy, but also included sentencing by the lord for criminal offences, including capital punishment in some cases.
Concerning the king's feudal court, such deliberation could include the question of declaring war.
These are examples; depending on the period of time and location in Europe, feudal customs and practices varied; see examples of feudalism.
In its origin, the feudal grant of land had been seen in terms of a personal bond between lord and vassal, but with time and the transformation of fiefs into hereditary holdings, the nature of the system came to be seen as a form of "politics of land" an expression used by the historian Marc Bloch.
Power in this period became more personal. This "fragmentation of powers" was not, however, systematic throughout France, and in certain counties such as Flanders, Normandy, Anjou, Toulouse , counts were able to maintain control of their lands into the 12th century or later.
In response to this, the idea of a " liege lord " was developed where the obligations to one lord are regarded as superior in the 12th century.
Most of the military aspects of feudalism effectively ended by about Vestiges of the feudal system hung on in France until the French Revolution of the s, and the system lingered on in parts of Central and Eastern Europe as late as the s.
Slavery in Romania was abolished in Russia finally abolished serfdom in Even when the original feudal relationships had disappeared, there were many institutional remnants of feudalism left in place.
Historian Georges Lefebvre explains how at an early stage of the French Revolution , on just one night of August 4, , France abolished the long-lasting remnants of the feudal order.
It announced, "The National Assembly abolishes the feudal system entirely. Without debate the Assembly enthusiastically adopted equality of taxation and redemption of all manorial rights except for those involving personal servitude—which were to be abolished without indemnification.
Other proposals followed with the same success: the equality of legal punishment, admission of all to public office, abolition of venality in office, conversion of the tithe into payments subject to redemption, freedom of worship, prohibition of plural holding of benefices Privileges of provinces and towns were offered as a last sacrifice.
Originally the peasants were supposed to pay for the release of seigneurial dues; these dues affected more than a quarter of the farmland in France and provided most of the income of the large landowners.
Thus the peasants got their land free, and also no longer paid the tithe to the church. The phrase "feudal society" as defined by Marc Bloch  offers a wider definition than Ganshof's and includes within the feudal structure not only the warrior aristocracy bound by vassalage, but also the peasantry bound by manorialism, and the estates of the Church.
Thus the feudal order embraces society from top to bottom, though the "powerful and well-differentiated social group of the urban classes" came to occupy a distinct position to some extent outside the classic feudal hierarchy.
The idea of feudalism was unknown and the system it describes was not conceived of as a formal political system by the people living in the Medieval Period.
This section describes the history of the idea of feudalism, how the concept originated among scholars and thinkers, how it changed over time, and modern debates about its use.
Enlightenment authors generally mocked and ridiculed anything from the "Dark Ages" including feudalism, projecting its negative characteristics on the current French monarchy as a means of political gain.
When the French Constituent Assembly abolished the "feudal regime" in August this is what was meant. Adam Smith used the term "feudal system" to describe a social and economic system defined by inherited social ranks, each of which possessed inherent social and economic privileges and obligations.
In such a system wealth derived from agriculture, which was arranged not according to market forces but on the basis of customary labour services owed by serfs to landowning nobles.
Karl Marx also used the term in the 19th century in his analysis of society's economic and political development, describing feudalism or more usually feudal society or the feudal mode of production as the order coming before capitalism.
For Marx, what defined feudalism was the power of the ruling class the aristocracy in their control of arable land, leading to a class society based upon the exploitation of the peasants who farm these lands, typically under serfdom and principally by means of labour, produce and money rents.
He also took it as a paradigm for understanding the power-relationships between capitalists and wage-labourers in his own time: "in pre-capitalist systems it was obvious that most people did not control their own destiny—under feudalism, for instance, serfs had to work for their lords.
Capitalism seems different because people are in theory free to work for themselves or for others as they choose. Yet most workers have as little control over their lives as feudal serfs.
Eric Wolf have applied this label to include non-European societies, grouping feudalism together with Imperial Chinese and pre-Columbian Incan societies as 'tributary'.
In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, John Horace Round and Frederic William Maitland , both historians of medieval Britain, arrived at different conclusions as to the character of English society before the Norman Conquest in Round argued that the Normans had brought feudalism with them to England, while Maitland contended that its fundamentals were already in place in Britain before The debate continues today, but a consensus viewpoint is that England before the Conquest had commendation which embodied some of the personal elements in feudalism while William the Conqueror introduced a modified and stricter northern French feudalism to England incorporating oaths of loyalty to the king by all who held by feudal tenure, even the vassals of his principal vassals holding by feudal tenure meant that vassals must provide the quota of knights required by the king or a money payment in substitution.
In the 20th century, two outstanding historians offered still more widely differing perspectives. The French historian Marc Bloch , arguably the most influential 20th-century medieval historian,  approached feudalism not so much from a legal and military point of view but from a sociological one, presenting in Feudal Society ; English a feudal order not limited solely to the nobility.
It is his radical notion that peasants were part of the feudal relationship that sets Bloch apart from his peers: while the vassal performed military service in exchange for the fief, the peasant performed physical labour in return for protection — both are a form of feudal relationship.
According to Bloch, other elements of society can be seen in feudal terms; all the aspects of life were centered on "lordship", and so we can speak usefully of a feudal church structure, a feudal courtly and anti-courtly literature, and a feudal economy.
His classic definition of feudalism is widely accepted today among medieval scholars,  though questioned both by those who view the concept in wider terms and by those who find insufficient uniformity in noble exchanges to support such a model.
Although he was never formally a student in the circle of scholars around Marc Bloch and Lucien Febvre that came to be known as the Annales School , Georges Duby was an exponent of the Annaliste tradition.
He argued that in early 11th century, governing institutions—particularly comital courts established under the Carolingian monarchy—that had represented public justice and order in Burgundy during the 9th and 10th centuries receded and gave way to a new feudal order wherein independent aristocratic knights wielded power over peasant communities through strong-arm tactics and threats of violence.
In , the American historian Elizabeth A. Brown  rejected the label feudalism as an anachronism that imparts a false sense of uniformity to the concept.
Having noted the current use of many, often contradictory, definitions of feudalism , she argued that the word is only a construct with no basis in medieval reality, an invention of modern historians read back "tyrannically" into the historical record.
Supporters of Brown have suggested that the term should be expunged from history textbooks and lectures on medieval history entirely.
Although some contemporaries questioned Reynolds's methodology, other historians have supported it and her argument. Too many models of feudalism used for comparisons, even by Marxists, are still either constructed on the 16th-century basis or incorporate what, in a Marxist view, must surely be superficial or irrelevant features from it.
Even when one restricts oneself to Europe and to feudalism in its narrow sense it is extremely doubtful whether feudo-vassalic institutions formed a coherent bundle of institutions or concepts that were structurally separate from other institutions and concepts of the time.
The term feudal has also been applied to non-Western societies in which institutions and attitudes similar to those of medieval Europe are perceived to have prevailed See Examples of feudalism.
Japan has been extensively studied in this regard. Richard Abels notes that "Western Civilization and World Civilization textbooks now shy away from the term 'feudalism'.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Combination of legal and military customs and form of government in medieval Europe.
This article is about the classic, or medieval, Western European form of feudalism. For feudalism as practised in other societies, as well as that of the Europeans, see Examples of feudalism.
Further information: Abolition of feudalism in France. Spend your hard earned kreds on some of these games! Hide the progress bar forever? Yes No. Your game will start after this message close.
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