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Den utrikeshandel som förekommer är i första hand den som äger rum med Indien. Vattenkraftspotentialen i Bhutan är stor och elektricitet är landets största exportvara.
Olika tibetanska folk sammanfattningsvis kallade bhutia eller ngalop utgör en majoritet. De är traditionellt buddhister. I väst finns nepaleser , som är hinduer lhotshampa.
En annan folkgrupp är assamesiska sharchop. Den tibetanska formen av buddhism lamaismen är statsreligion och genomsyrar samhällslivet, men en försiktig sekularisering har inletts.
Prästerna lamorna har betydande makt och de befästa klostren dzong , som tidigare var administrativa centra, har fungerat som skolor och viktiga kulturcentra.
Buddhismen är en viktig del av livet i Bhutan. Den officiella religionen är Drugpagrenen inom Kagyüskolan i den tibetanska buddhismen.
Jigme Pema Wangchen född är den tolfte Gyalwang Drugpa. Ej att förväxla med Butan kolväteförening.
Huvudartikel: Bhutans historia. Huvudartikel: Bhutans geografi. Huvudartikel: Lista över Bhutans distrikt. Kategorier : Bhutan Asiens länder Monarkier Kustlösa stater.
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Im öffentlichen Bewusstsein ist die überragende kulturgeschichtliche Bedeutung dieser Region aber viel zu wenig bekannt.
Mit dem Lernpfad und der Pfahlbausiedlung Wauwil wird ein seit langem geplantes Projekt der Kantonsarchäologie Realität. Die Kira ist ein knöchellanges Kleid, welches aus einer ca.
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It is mandatory to procure user consent prior to running these cookies on your website.Für den Entwicklungsplan — soll u. Erstmals führt eine Reise auch nach Bhutan. Der König selbst hatte angekündigt, mit Einführung der Verfassung zurückzutreten. Samdrup Jongkhar. Although the West-East-Highway is one of the most important Best Uk Online Slots the country, there is only little traffic. Zwei Schweizer Reiseveranstalter bieten in Zusammenarbeit mit Helvetas ein vielseitiges Reiseangebot u. Seit betreibt die Regierung eine Politik der kulturellen Raonline Bhutan. Die traditionelle Architektur als besonders sichtbarer Ausdruck der Kultur Bhutans ist bestimmt von Sizzling Online Ca La Aparate Religion: alle Bauelemente, Proportionen, Farben etc. About Bumthang. Politischer Widerstand gegen ein im Jahre eingeführtes Staatsbürgerschaftsgesetz war der Grund für die Unruhen und die Vertreibung von mehr als
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Headed by a spiritual leader known as the Zhabdrung Rinpoche , the territory comprised many fiefdoms and was governed as a Buddhist theocracy.
Following a civil war in the 19th century, the House of Wangchuck reunited the country and established relations with the British Empire.
After the end of the British Raj , Bhutan fostered a strategic partnership with India during the rise of Chinese communism; it has a disputed border with China.
In the early s, the government deported much of the country's Nepali -speaking Lhotsampa minority, sparking a refugee crisis in nearby Jhapa , Nepal.
In , Bhutan transitioned from an absolute monarchy to a constitutional monarchy and held the first election to the National Assembly of Bhutan. The National Assembly is part of the bicameral parliament of the Bhutanese democracy.
Gangkhar Puensum is Bhutan's highest peak and may also be the highest unclimbed mountain in the world. In South Asia, Bhutan ranks first in economic freedom , ease of doing business and peace and is the least corrupt country in the region as of [update].
It continues to be a least developed country , but expects to graduate from this status by Hydroelectricity accounts for most of its exports.
Bhutan is also notable for pioneering the concept of Gross National Happiness. The precise etymology of "Bhutan" is unknown, although it is likely to derive from the Tibetan endonym "Böd" for Tibet.
Since the 17th century Bhutan's official name has been Druk yul country of the Drukpa Lineage , the Dragon People, or the Land of the Thunder Dragon, a reference to the country's dominant Buddhist sect ; "Bhutan" appears only in English-language official correspondence.
But these names seem to have referred not to modern Bhutan but to the Kingdom of Tibet. The modern distinction between the two did not begin until well into the Scottish explorer George Bogle 's expedition.
Realizing the differences between the two regions, cultures and states, his final report to the East India Company formally proposed calling the Druk Desi 's kingdom "Boutan" and the Panchen Lama 's "Tibet".
The first time a separate Kingdom of Bhutan appeared on a western map, it did so under its local name "Broukpa". Stone tools, weapons, elephants, and remnants of large stone structures provide evidence that Bhutan was inhabited as early as BC, although there are no existing records from that time.
Historians have theorized that the state of Lhomon literally, "southern darkness" , or Monyul "Dark Land", a reference to the Monpa , the aboriginal peoples of Bhutan may have existed between BC and AD Buddhism was first introduced to Bhutan in the 7th century AD.
Tibetan king Songtsän Gampo  reigned — , a convert to Buddhism, who actually had extended the Tibetan Empire into Sikkim and Bhutan,  ordered the construction of two Buddhist temples, at Bumthang in central Bhutan and at Kyichu near Paro in the Paro Valley.
Much of early Bhutanese history is unclear because most of the records were destroyed when fire ravaged the ancient capital, Punakha , in By the 10th century, Bhutan's political development was heavily influenced by its religious history.
Various subsects of Buddhism emerged that were patronized by the various Mongol warlords. Bhutan may have been influenced by the Yuan dynasty with which it shares various cultural and religious similarities.
After the decline of the Yuan dynasty in the 14th century, these subsects vied with each other for supremacy in the political and religious landscape, eventually leading to the ascendancy of the Drukpa Lineage by the 16th century.
Locally, Bhutan has been known by many names. To defend the country against intermittent Tibetan forays, Namgyal built a network of impregnable dzongs or fortresses, and promulgated the Tsa Yig , a code of law that helped to bring local lords under centralized control.
Many such dzong still exist and are active centers of religion and district administration. They met Zhabdrung Ngawang Namgyal, presented him with firearms, gunpowder and a telescope, and offered him their services in the war against Tibet, but the Zhabdrung declined the offer.
After a stay of nearly eight months Cacella wrote a long letter from the Chagri Monastery reporting on his travels. This is a rare extant report of the Zhabdrung.
When Ngawang Namgyal died in , his passing was kept secret for 54 years. After a period of consolidation, Bhutan lapsed into internal conflict.
In Bhutan went to war against the Raja of the kingdom of Koch Bihar in the south. During the chaos that followed, the Tibetans unsuccessfully attacked Bhutan in In the 18th century, the Bhutanese invaded and occupied the kingdom of Koch Bihar.
A peace treaty was signed in which Bhutan agreed to retreat to its pre borders. However, the peace was tenuous, and border skirmishes with the British were to continue for the next hundred years.
The skirmishes eventually led to the Duar War —65 , a confrontation for control of the Bengal Duars. As part of the war reparations , the Duars were ceded to the United Kingdom in exchange for a rent of Rs.
The treaty ended all hostilities between British India and Bhutan. During the s, power struggles between the rival valleys of Paro and Tongsa led to civil war in Bhutan, eventually leading to the ascendancy of Ugyen Wangchuck , the penlop governor of Trongsa.
From his power base in central Bhutan, Ugyen Wangchuck defeated his political enemies and united the country following several civil wars and rebellions during — In , an epochal year for the country, Ugyen Wangchuck was unanimously chosen as the hereditary king of the country by the Lhengye Tshog of leading Buddhist monks, government officials, and heads of important families, with the firm petition made by Gongzim Ugyen Dorji.
This had little real effect, given Bhutan's historical reticence, and also did not appear to affect Bhutan's traditional relations with Tibet.
After the new Union of India gained independence from the United Kingdom on 15 August , Bhutan became one of the first countries to recognize India's independence.
On 8 August , a treaty similar to that of , in which Britain had gained power over Bhutan's foreign relations, was signed with the newly independent India.
In , King Jigme Dorji Wangchuck established the country's legislature — a member National Assembly — to promote a more democratic form of governance.
In , he set up a Royal Advisory Council, and in he formed a Cabinet. In , Bhutan was admitted to the United Nations, having held observer status for three years.
In July , Jigme Singye Wangchuck ascended to the throne at the age of sixteen after the death of his father, Dorji Wangchuck. In the s, Bhutan expelled most of its ethnic Lhotshampa population, one-fifth of the country's population, demanding conformity in religion, dress, and language.
Bhutan's political system has recently changed from an absolute monarchy to a constitutional monarchy. King Jigme Singye Wangchuck transferred most of his administrative powers to the Council of Cabinet Ministers and allowed for impeachment of the King by a two-thirds majority of the National Assembly.
In , the government lifted a ban on television and the Internet, making Bhutan one of the last countries to introduce television.
In his speech, the King said that television was a critical step to the modernization of Bhutan as well as a major contributor to the country's gross national happiness ,  but warned that the "misuse" of this new technology could erode traditional Bhutanese values.
A new constitution was presented in early In December , Wangchuck announced that he would abdicate the throne in his son's favour in On 14 December , he announced that he would be abdicating immediately.
This was followed by the first national parliamentary elections in December and March Bhutan is on the southern slopes of the eastern Himalayas , landlocked between the Tibet Autonomous Region of China to the north and the Indian states of Sikkim , West Bengal , Assam to west and south and the Indian state of Arunachal Pradesh to the east.
The land consists mostly of steep and high mountains crisscrossed by a network of swift rivers that form deep valleys before draining into the Indian plains.
This great geographical diversity combined with equally diverse climate conditions contributes to Bhutan's outstanding range of biodiversity and ecosystems.
Bhutan's northern region consists of an arc of Eastern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows reaching up to glaciated mountain peaks with an extremely cold climate at the highest elevations.
The forests of the central Bhutan mountains consist of Eastern Himalayan subalpine conifer forests in higher elevations and Eastern Himalayan broadleaf forests in lower elevations.
Woodlands of the central region provide most of Bhutan's forest production. Most of the population lives in the central highlands.
The foothills descend into the subtropical Duars Plain. The Bhutan Duars is divided into two parts, the northern and southern Duars.
The northern Duars, which abut the Himalayan foothills, have rugged, sloping terrain and dry, porous soil with dense vegetation and abundant wildlife.
The southern Duars has moderately fertile soil, heavy savanna grass, dense, mixed jungle, and freshwater springs. Mountain rivers, fed by melting snow or monsoon rains, empty into the Brahmaputra River in India.
Gangkar Puensum , the highest mountain in Bhutan. A Himalayan peak from Bumthang. Jigme Dorji National Park. Bhutan's climate varies with elevation, from subtropical in the south to temperate in the highlands and polar-type climate with year-round snow in the north.
Bhutan experiences five distinct seasons: summer, monsoon , autumn, winter and spring. Western Bhutan has the heavier monsoon rains; southern Bhutan has hot humid summers and cool winters; central and eastern Bhutan are temperate and drier than the west with warm summers and cool winters.
Bhutan signed the Rio Convention on Biological Diversity on 11 June , and became a party to the convention on 25 August Bhutan has a rich primate life, with rare species such as the golden langur.
The Bengal tiger , clouded leopard , hispid hare and the sloth bear live in the tropical lowland and hardwood forests in the south. In the temperate zone, grey langur , tiger, goral and serow are found in mixed conifer, broadleaf and pine forests.
Fruit-bearing trees and bamboo provide habitat for the Himalayan black bear , red panda , squirrel , sambar , wild pig and barking deer.
The alpine habitats of the great Himalayan range in the north are home to the snow leopard , blue sheep , marmot , Tibetan wolf , antelope , Himalayan musk deer and the takin , Bhutan's national animal.
The endangered wild water buffalo occurs in southern Bhutan, although in small numbers. More than species of bird have been recorded in Bhutan.
The globally endangered white-winged duck has been added recently [ when? More than 5, species of plants are found in Bhutan,  including Pedicularis cacuminidenta.
Fungi form a key part of Bhutanese ecosystems, with mycorrhizal species providing forest trees with mineral nutrients necessary for growth, and with wood decay and litter decomposing species playing an important role in natural recycling.
The Eastern Himalayas have been identified as a global biodiversity hotspot and counted among the globally outstanding ecoregions of the world in a comprehensive analysis of global biodiversity undertaken by WWF between and According to the Swiss-based International Union for Conservation of Nature , Bhutan is viewed as a model for proactive conservation initiatives.
The Kingdom has received international acclaim for its commitment to the maintenance of its biodiversity.
All of Bhutan's protected land is connected to one another through a vast network of biological corridors, allowing animals to migrate freely throughout the country.
It is not treated as a sector but rather as a set of concerns that must be mainstreamed in Bhutan's overall approach to development planning and to be buttressed by the force of law.
The country's constitution mentions environment standards in multiple sections. Although Bhutan's natural heritage is still largely intact, the government has said that it cannot be taken for granted and that conservation of the natural environment must be considered one of the challenges that will need to be addressed in the years ahead.
It currently has net negative  greenhouse gas emissions because the small amount of pollution it creates is absorbed by the forests that cover most of the country.
Bhutan has a number of progressive environmental policies that have caused the head of the UNFCCC to call it an "inspiration and role model for the world on how economies and different countries can address climate change while at the same time improving the life of the citizen.
Because the country gets most of its energy from hydroelectric power , it does not emit significant greenhouse gases for energy production.
Pressures on the natural environment are already evident and will be fuelled by a complex array of forces. They include population pressures, agricultural modernization, poaching, hydro-power development, mineral extraction, industrialization, urbanization, sewage and waste disposal, tourism, competition for available land, road construction and the provision of other physical infrastructure associated with social and economic development.
In practice, the overlap of these extensive protected lands with populated areas has led to mutual habitat encroachment. Protected wildlife has entered agricultural areas, trampling crops and killing livestock.
In response, Bhutan has implemented an insurance scheme, begun constructing solar powered alarm fences, watch towers, and search lights, and has provided fodder and salt licks outside human settlement areas to encourage animals to stay away.
The huge market value of the Ophiocordyceps sinensis fungus crop collected from the wild has also resulted in unsustainable exploitation which is proving very difficult to regulate.
Bhutan has enforced a plastic ban rule from 1 April , where plastic bags were replaced by alternative bags made of jute and other biodegradable material.
Bhutan is a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary form of government, although scholar Dhurba Rizal has categorized it as a semi-democracy with only cosmetic or minor changes to the political structure prior to the absolute monarchy being abolished in the s.
The Druk Gyalpo Dragon King is the head of state. It consists of the National Council , an upper house with 25 elected members; and the National Assembly with 47 elected lawmakers from political parties.
Executive power is exercised by the Council of Ministers led by the prime minister. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the National Assembly.
Judicial power is vested in the courts. The legal system originates from the semi-theocratic Tsa Yig code and was influenced by English common law during the 20th century.
The chief justice is the administrative head of the judiciary. The first general elections for the National Assembly were held on 24 March The DPT won the elections, taking 45 out of 47 seats.
The People's Democratic Party came to power in the elections. It won 32 seats and Druk Nyamrup Tshogpa won the largest number of seats in the National Assembly Election , bringing Lotay Tshering to premiership and Druk Nyamrup Tshogpa into the government for the first time.
Women in Bhutan tend to be less active in politics than men due to customs and aspects of Bhutan's culture that dictate a woman's role in the household.
Bhutan has made steps toward gender equality by enrolling more girls in school as well as creating the National Commission for Women and Children NCWC in Bhutan also elected its first female Dzongda , equivalent to a District Attorney, in , and its first female minister in In the early 20th century, Bhutan's principal foreign relations were with British India and Tibet.
The government of British India managed relations with the kingdom from the Bhutan House in Kalimpong. Fearful of Chinese communist expansion, Bhutan signed a friendship treaty with the newly independent Republic of India in Its concerns were exacerbated after the Chinese incorporation of Tibet.
Bhutan joined the United Nations in It was the first country to recognize Bangladesh's independence in Bhutan maintains strong economic, strategic, and military relations with India.
Bhutan has very warm relations with Japan, which provides significant development assistance. The Bhutanese royals were hosted by the Japanese imperial family during a state visit in Japan is also helping Bhutan cope with glacial floods through developing an early warning system.
Bhutan enjoys strong political and diplomatic relations with Bangladesh. The Bhutanese king was the guest of honour during celebrations of the 40th anniversary of Bangladesh's independence.
Bhutan has diplomatic relations with 52 countries and the European Union and has missions in India, Bangladesh, Thailand, Kuwait and Belgium.
Only India, Bangladesh and Kuwait have residential embassies in Bhutan. Other countries maintain informal diplomatic contact via their embassies in New Delhi and Dhaka.
Bhutan maintains formal diplomatic relations with several Asian and European nations, Canada, and Brazil. Other countries, such as the United States and the United Kingdom, have no formal diplomatic relations with Bhutan but maintain informal contact through their respective embassies in New Delhi and the Bhutanese honorary consulate in Washington, DC.
The United Kingdom has an honorary consul resident in Thimphu. By a long-standing agreement, Indian and Bhutanese citizens may travel to each other's countries without a passport or visa, but must still have their national identity cards.
Bhutanese citizens may also work in India without legal restriction. Bhutan does not have formal diplomatic ties with China, but exchanges of visits at various levels between them have significantly increased in recent times.
The first bilateral agreement between China and Bhutan was signed in and Bhutan has also set up honorary consulates in the Special Administrative Regions of Hong Kong and Macau.
Approximately square kilometres remain under discussion between China and Bhutan. On 13 November , Chinese soldiers crossed into the disputed territories between China and Bhutan and began building roads and bridges.
In response, Foreign Ministry spokesman Qin Gang of the People's Republic of China said that the border remains in dispute and that the two sides are continuing to work for a peaceful and cordial resolution of the dispute, denying that the presence of soldiers in the area was an attempt to forcibly occupy it.
The Bhutanese newspaper Kuensel said that China might use the roads to further Chinese claims along the border.
Whereas the Treaty of , Article 2 stated: "The Government of India undertakes to exercise no interference in the internal administration of Bhutan.
On its part the Government of Bhutan agrees to be guided by the advice of the Government of India in regard to its external relations," the revised treaty now states "In keeping with the abiding ties of close friendship and cooperation between Bhutan and India, the Government of the Kingdom of Bhutan and the Government of the Republic of India shall cooperate closely with each other on issues relating to their national interests.
Neither government shall allow the use of its territory for activities harmful to the national security and interest of the other.
The Indo-Bhutan Friendship Treaty of clarifies Bhutan's status as an independent and sovereign nation. The Royal Bhutan Army is Bhutan's military service.
It includes the royal bodyguard and the Royal Bhutan Police. Membership is voluntary and the minimum age for recruitment is The standing army numbers about 16, and is trained by the Indian Army.
As a landlocked country , Bhutan has no navy. It also has no air force or army aviation corps. Homosexual acts are illegal in Bhutan.
In the s, Bhutan expelled or forced to leave most of its ethnic Lhotshampa population, one-fifth of the country's population, demanding conformity in religion, dress, and language.
A harassment campaign escalating in the early s ensued, and afterwards Bhutanese security forces began expelling people.
According to the UNHCR , more than , Bhutanese refugees living in seven camps in eastern Nepal have been documented as of [update].
The US admitted 60, refugees from fiscal years to The Nepalese government does not permit citizenship for Bhutanese refugees, so most of them have become stateless.
The government strictly enforced this law in Buddhist religious buildings, government offices, schools, official functions, and public ceremonies.
Bhutan is divided into twenty Dzongkhag districts , administered by a body called the Dzongkhag Tshogdu. In certain thromdes urban municipalities , a further municipal administration is directly subordinate to the Dzongkhag administration.
In the vast majority of constituencies, rural geog village blocks are administered by bodies called the Geog Tshogde.
Thromdes municipalities elect Thrompons to lead administration, who in turn represent the Thromde in the Dzongkhag Tshogdu. Likewise, geog elect headmen called gup s, vice-headmen called mangmis , who also sit on the Dzongkhag Tshogdu, as well as other members of the Geog Tshogde.
The basis of electoral constituencies in Bhutan is the chiwog , a subdivision of gewogs delineated by the Election Commission.
Bhutan's currency is the ngultrum , whose value is fixed to the Indian rupee. The rupee is also accepted as legal tender in the country.
Though Bhutan's economy is one of the world's smallest,  it has grown rapidly in recent years, by eight percent in and 14 percent in In , Bhutan had the second-fastest-growing economy in the world, with an annual economic growth rate of This was mainly due to the commissioning of the gigantic Tala Hydroelectric Power Station.
Bhutan's economy is based on agriculture, forestry, tourism and the sale of hydroelectric power to India. Agriculture provides the main livelihood for Handicrafts, particularly weaving and the manufacture of religious art for home altars, are a small cottage industry.
A landscape that varies from hilly to ruggedly mountainous has made the building of roads and other infrastructure difficult and expensive.
This, and a lack of access to the sea, has meant that Bhutan has not been able to benefit from significant trading of its produce.
Bhutan has no railways , though Indian Railways plans to link southern Bhutan to its vast network under an agreement signed in January Access to biocapacity in Bhutan is much higher than world average.
In , Bhutan had 5. This means they use less biocapacity than Bhutan contains. As a result, Bhutan is running a biocapacity reserve.
The industrial sector is in a nascent stage, and though most production comes from cottage industry, larger industries are being encouraged and some industries such as cement, steel, and ferroalloy have been set up.
Most development projects, such as road construction, rely on Indian contract labour. Agricultural produce includes rice, chilies, dairy some yak, mostly cow products, buckwheat, barley, root crops, apples, and citrus and maize at lower elevations.
Industries include cement, wood products, processed fruits, alcoholic beverages and calcium carbide. Incomes of over Nu , per annum are taxed, but very few wage and salary earners qualify.
Bhutan's inflation rate was estimated at about three percent in Twenty-five percent of the budget expenditure, however, is financed by India's Ministry of External Affairs.
Main items imported include fuel and lubricants, grain, machinery, vehicles, fabrics and rice. Bhutan's main export partner is India, accounting for Hong Kong Bhutan's import partners include India In the government announced the aspiration that Bhutan will become the first country in the world with percent organic farming.
Bangladesh is the largest market of Bhutanese apples and oranges. Fishing in Bhutan is mainly centered on trout and carp.
The key manufacturing sectors in Bhutan include production of ferroalloy , cement, metal poles, iron and nonalloy steel products, processed graphite , copper conductors , alcoholic and carbonated beverages , processed fruits, carpets, wood products and furniture.
Bhutan has deposits of numerous minerals. Commercial production includes coal , dolomite , gypsum , and limestone. The country has proven reserves of beryl , copper , graphite, lead , mica , pyrite , tin , tungsten , and zinc.
However, the country remains as an environmental frontier as it prefers to conserve the environment, rather than to exploit and destroy it for money.
Bhutan's largest export is hydroelectricity. As of [update] , it generates about 2, MW of hydropower from Himalayan river valleys.
Future projects are being planned with Bangladesh. As of [update] , the Tala Hydroelectric Power Station is its largest power plant, with an installed capacity of 1, MW.
It has received assistance from India, Austria and the Asian Development Bank in developing hydroelectric projects. Besides hydropower, it is also endowed with significant renewable energy resources such as solar, wind and bioenergy.
Technically viable solar energy generation capacity is around 12, MW and wind around MW. Bhutan is likely to benefit geopolitically from the global transition to renewable energy and is ranked no.
The country's financial sector is also supported by other non-banking Financial Institutions. The Royal Securities Exchange of Bhutan is the main stock exchange.
In , Bhutan welcomed , foreign visitors. Bhutan is also well known for mountain adventure trekking and hiking. Paro Airport is the only international airport in Bhutan.
Yongphulla Airport in Trashigang is a small domestic airport that underwent upgrades through The Lateral Road is Bhutan's primary east—west corridor, connecting Phuentsholing in the southwest to Trashigang in the east.
In between, the Lateral Road runs directly through Wangdue Phodrang , Trongsa and other population centres. The Lateral Road also has spurs connecting to the capital Thimphu and other major population centres such as Paro and Punakha.
As with other roads in Bhutan, the Lateral Road presents serious safety concerns due to pavement conditions, sheer drops, hairpin turns, weather and landslides.
Since , road widening has been a priority across Bhutan, in particular for the north-east—west highway from Trashigang to Dochula.
The widening project is expected to be completed by the end of and will make road travel across the country substantially faster and more efficient.
In addition, it is projected that the improved road conditions will encourage more tourism in the more inaccessible eastern region of Bhutan. Bhutan had a population of , people in The literacy rate in Bhutan is Bhutanese people primarily consist of the Ngalops and Sharchops , called the Western Bhutanese and Eastern Bhutanese respectively.
Although the Sharchops are slightly larger in demographic size, the Ngalops dominate the political sphere, as the King and the political elite belong to this group.
Their culture is closely related to that of Tibet. Much the same could be said of the Sharchops , the largest group, who traditionally follow the Nyingmapa rather than the official Drukpa Kagyu form of Tibetan Buddhism.
In modern times, with improved transportation infrastructure, there has been much intermarriage between these groups.
The Lhotshampa , meaning "southerner Bhutanese", are a heterogeneous group of mostly Nepalese ancestry.
In the early s, intermarriage between the Lhotshampas Bhutanese and mainstream Bhutanese society was encouraged by the government, but after the late s, the Bhutanese government forced about , Lhotshampas from their homes, seized their land, and expelled them to refugee camps.
Religion in Bhutan Pew . It is estimated that between two-thirds and three-quarters of the Bhutanese population follow Vajrayana Buddhism , which is also the state religion.
About one-quarter to one-third are followers of Hinduism. Buddhism was introduced to Bhutan in the 7th century AD. Tibetan king Songtsän Gampo reigned — , a convert to Buddhism, ordered the construction of two Buddhist temples, at Bumthang in central Bhutan and at Kyichu Lhakhang near Paro in the Paro Valley.
The national language is Dzongkha Bhutanese , one of 53 languages in the Tibetan language family.
The script, here called Chhokey "Dharma language" , is identical to classical Tibetan. In the schools English is the medium of instruction and Dzongkha is taught as the national language.
Ethnologue lists 24 languages currently spoken in Bhutan, all of them in the Tibeto-Burman family, except Nepali , an Indo-Aryan language.
Until the s, the government sponsored the teaching of Nepali in schools in southern Bhutan. With the adoption of Driglam Namzhag and its expansion into the idea of strengthening the role of Dzongkha, Nepali was dropped from the curriculum.
The languages of Bhutan are still not well characterized, and several have yet to be recorded in an in-depth academic grammar. Tshangla , the language of the Sharchop and the principal pre-Tibetan language of Bhutan, is spoken by a greater number of people.
It is not easily classified and may constitute an independent branch of Tibeto-Burman. Bhutan has a life expectancy of Basic healthcare in Bhutan is free, as provided by the Constitution of Bhutan.
Bhutan has two decentralized universities with eleven constituent colleges spread across the kingdom, the Royal University of Bhutan and Khesar Gyalpo University of Medical Sciences.
The first five-year plan provided for a central education authority—in the form of a director of education appointed in —and an organized, modern school system with free and universal primary education.
Since the beginning of education in Bhutan, teachers from India, especially Kerala have served in some of the most remote villages of Bhutan.
In honour of their service, 43 retired teachers who served for the longest time were invited to Thimphu , Bhutan during the teachers day celebrations in and individually thanked by His Majesty Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck.
To celebrate 50 years of diplomatic relations between Bhutan and India, 80 teachers who served in Bhutan were honoured by the Education Minister Jai Bir Rai at a special ceremony organized at Kolkata , India on 6 January Bhutan has a rich and unique cultural heritage that has largely remained intact because of its isolation from the rest of the world until the midth century.
One of the main attractions for tourists is the country's culture and traditions. Bhutanese tradition is deeply steeped in its Buddhist heritage.
Because of its largely unspoiled natural environment and cultural heritage, Bhutan has been referred to as The Last Shangri-La. While Bhutanese citizens are free to travel abroad, Bhutan is viewed as inaccessible by many foreigners.
Another reason for it being an unpopular destination is the cost, which is high for tourists on tighter budgets.
Bhutan is the first nation in the world to ban smoking. It has been illegal to smoke in public or sell tobacco, according to Tobacco Control Act of Bhutan The national dress for Bhutanese men is the gho , a knee-length robe tied at the waist by a cloth belt known as the kera.
Women wear an ankle-length dress, the kira , which is clipped at the shoulders with two identical brooches called the koma and tied at the waist with kera.
An accompaniment to the kira is a long-sleeved blouse, the wonju which is worn underneath the kira. A long-sleeved jacket-like garment, the toego is worn over the kira.
The sleeves of the wonju and the tego are folded together at the cuffs, inside out. Social status and class determine the texture, colours, and decorations that embellish the garments.
Differently coloured scarves, known as rachu for women red is the most common colour and kabney for men, are important indicators of social standing, as Bhutan has traditionally been a feudal society.
Jewellery is mostly worn by women, especially during religious festivals tsechus and public gatherings. To strengthen Bhutan's identity as an independent country, Bhutanese law requires all Bhutanese government employees to wear the national dress at work and all citizens to wear the national dress while visiting schools and other government offices though many citizens, particularly adults, choose to wear the customary dress as formal attire.
Bhutanese architecture remains distinctively traditional, employing rammed earth and wattle and daub construction methods, stone masonry, and intricate woodwork around windows and roofs.
Traditional architecture uses no nails or iron bars in construction. Since ancient times, the dzongs have served as the religious and secular administration centres for their respective districts.
Bhutan has numerous public holidays , most of which coincide with traditional, seasonal, secular or religious festivals. They include the winter solstice around 1 January, depending on the lunar calendar ,  Lunar New Year February or March ,  the King's birthday and the anniversary of his coronation, the official end of monsoon season 22 September ,  National Day 17 December ,  and various Buddhist and Hindu celebrations.
Masked dances and dance dramas are common traditional features at festivals, usually accompanied by traditional music.
The dancers enjoy royal patronage, and preserve ancient folk and religious customs and perpetuate the ancient lore and art of mask-making.
The music of Bhutan can generally be divided into traditional and modern varieties; traditional music comprises religious and folk genres, the latter including zhungdra and boedra.
In Bhutanese families, inheritance generally passes matrilineally through the female rather than the male line.
Daughters will inherit their parents' house. A man is expected to make his own way in the world and often moves to his wife's home. Love marriages are more common in urban areas, but the tradition of arranged marriages among acquainted families is still prevalent in most of the rural areas.
Although uncommon, polygamy is accepted, often being a device to keep property in a contained family unit rather than dispersing it. Rice red rice , buckwheat , and increasingly maize , are the staples of Bhutanese cuisine.
The local diet also includes pork, beef, yak meat, chicken, and lamb. Soups and stews of meat and dried vegetables spiced with chilies and cheese are prepared.
Ema datshi , made very spicy with cheese and chilies, might be called the national dish for its ubiquity and the pride that Bhutanese have for it.
Dairy foods, particularly butter and cheese from yaks and cows, are also popular, and indeed almost all milk is turned into butter and cheese.
Popular beverages include butter tea , black tea, locally brewed ara rice wine , and beer. Bhutan is the first country in the world to have banned the sale of tobacco under its Tobacco Act of Bhutan's national and most popular sport is archery.
It differs from Olympic standards in technical details such as the placement of the targets and atmosphere. Two targets are placed over meters apart, and teams shoot from one end of the field to the other.
Each member of the team shoots two arrows per round. Traditional Bhutanese archery is a social event, and competitions are organized between villages, towns, and amateur teams.
There is usually plenty of food and drink complete with singing and dancing. Attempts to distract an opponent include standing around the target and making fun of the shooter's ability.
Another traditional sport is the Digor , which resembles the shot put and horseshoe throwing. Another popular sport is basketball. A documentary of the match was made by the Dutch filmmaker Johan Kramer.
The Bhutan national cricket team is one of the most successful affiliate nations in the region. Women have begun to participate more in the work force and their participation is one of the highest in the region.
Rooted deep in Bhutan culture is the idea of selflessness and the women of Bhutan take on this role in the context of the household.
Throughout Bhutan there has been an improvement in reproductive health services and there has been a drastic drop in maternal mortality rate, dropping from 1, in to in From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Not to be confused with Bataan , Bohtan , or Butuan. Country in South Asia. The population of Bhutan had been estimated based on the reported figure of about 1 million in the s when the country had joined the United Nations and precise statistics were lacking.
A national census was carried out in and it turned out that the population was , Consequently, United Nations Population Division reduced its estimation of the country's population in the revision  for the whole period from to Main articles: History of Bhutan and Timeline of Bhutanese history.
Further information: Law of Bhutan and Constitution of Bhutan. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Main article: Geography of Bhutan. The Haa Valley in Western Bhutan.
See also: List of mammals of Bhutan and Wildlife of Bhutan. Main article: List of protected areas of Bhutan. Protected areas of Bhutan in lavender; biological corridors in green.
Further information: Environmental issues in Bhutan. Main article: Politics of Bhutan. Main article: Foreign relations of Bhutan. Further information: Military of Bhutan.
Main article: Human rights in Bhutan. Pema- gatshel. Samdrup Jongkhar. Wangdue Phodrang. Districts of Bhutan . Main article: Economy of Bhutan.
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